- 1 Manufacturing/Production Process from Fabric to Finished Products
- 2 Flow Chart of Garments Manufacturing Process / Technology
- 2.1 Production steps:
- 2.2 Sample Category:
- 2.3 Sample types:
- 2.4 Fabric quality check:
- 2.5 Other textile tests such as GSM fabric:
- 2.6 Fabric sorting and shading binding:
- 2.7 Quality checking of trims and accessories:
- 2.8 Pattern Making Phase:
- 2.9 Marking Category:
- 2.10 Types of marking:
- 2.11 Receiving Fabrics:
- 2.12 Fabric Quality:
- 3 Fabric Relaxing
- 4 Distribution, Form Planning, and Cutting
- 5 Fabric Cutting
- 6 Types of cutting process
- 7 Sewing
Manufacturing/Production Process from Fabric to Finished Products
Fabric production is a structured activity that consists of a series of processes such as placement, marking, cutting, sewing, finishing, compression and packaging. This is the process of converting raw materials into finished products. It will be difficult to take care of the industry if the product is not made, to the point where the pre-production stage of the asset repair can be done poorly.
Ready to wear clothing or garment production involves many stages of processing, starting with the concept or design concept and ending with the finished product. The process of manufacturing garments involves product design, fabric selection and testing, pattern making, grading, marking, distribution, cutting, folding, sewing, compression or folding, finishing and specifying, dyeing and washing, QC etc.
Flow Chart of Garments Manufacturing Process / Technology
A basic garment manufacturing flow chart is presented below:
Fit Sample Making
Production Pattern Making
Cutting Parts Sorting or Bundling
Garments Ironing and Finishing
The complete garment must undergo several processes from its availability to shipment. During the production of garments, a flow chart is required to complete the order easily. Also, the flow chart helps to understand how to produce clothing and how materials are transformed into clothing.
There are many types of samples needed where the garments will make the product.
- The first example of a pattern
- Development sample
- Second Pattern Sample:
- Calculation sample
- Salesman Sample:
- Sample image
- Sample authorization
- Pre-production sample
- Production sample
- Shipping sample
Sample types and details:
The first example of a pattern:
Design provided by the consumer and make it a visible version of the garment.
Which sample is made up of a sample section from a sample of the main pattern.
Second Pattern Sample:
Usually the designer / engineer always asks for some change in the original pattern. The second pattern is made as per comment.
When the first pattern is made for the designers of the drawings, the Counter sample to make and not to the designer art, should follow another sample provided by the vendor.
Merchant Sample is made when PRICE is verified and the order is considered. The buyer holds a meeting with his customer and records their response in bulk order for each color, SIZE etc. and finally places an order with their seller.
Samples of pictures made of real color and items to be worn by models in case of SHOOTING in the catalog.
Posted to the buyer for his APPROVAL agreement that the review was done correctly. If an error is found the sample is returned to the clothes.
When production accessories arrive on the product’s garments, the garments make a sample for the consumer. The so-called pre-production sample.
Assurance to buyer that bulk is produced as a specific specification.
This sample is sent to the shipping inspector. Who provides the product to the consumer? An important sample due to the shipping inspector provided a note to the buyer as a basis for the sample.
Fabric quality check:
Whether the fabrics are purchased from the consumer’s recommended buyers or the open market, the garment manufacturers are not sure that all the fabrics are flawless. Fabric testing is therefore an important process. Fabric may need to be 100% tested or can be randomly tested depending on the quality of the fabric obtained. For example, the 4 Point System is used in the factories of textile testing and fabric quality placement.
Other textile tests such as GSM fabric:
Fabric thinning and color in washing are performed by the factory. Sometimes the patterns are changed according to the shrinkage of the fabric which gives the right amount to the garment after washing.
Fabric sorting and shading binding:
It is a common fact that when fabrics are obtained in bulk, the fabrics are processed into different lots (collections) depending on the dye machine. Therefore, it is possible to have a variety of shades of fabrics of the same color. To avoid variation of shade on clothes the belt line is adjusted by the factory.
Quality checking of trims and accessories:
Same as fabric sorting all required drawings and accessories are purchased. Trim and utensils are improved in the early stages of production. Trim requirements are calculated based on the use of clothing for each garment.
Pattern Making Phase:
The process of making a pattern is drawing or art on flat paper of flat fabric. Basically, the textile industry makes its pattern using flat paper. Because the pattern can be easily removed from the pattern paper. Therefore, the textile industry follows the process of making a pattern using paper. At Divine Textile Ltd, they also make their own pattern using paper. And the name of the paper is a pattern paper.
The pattern is important because, it is the first stage of making clothes. If the pattern is correct then the clothes should be accurate. Shoppers give a list of sizes to the clothes, and the clothes follow the size and make a pattern with the assignment. Pattern is a big problem for all clothes.
It marks the process by which all patterns are stored in the long fabric. And this factory process reduces fabric damage before cutting. Marking to increase fabric efficiency.
Types of marking:
- Manual marking process
- Computerized marker making process
Manual marking process:
This is the process by which one makes the maker by hand. No computer software is used. Basically, anyone who does this process will be a very knowledgeable person, and he is able to do this. In my clothes the process of making a maker by hand.
Computerized marker making process:
This is 100% computer-generated, using CAD (design assisted Computer) or many other software.
Clothing factories receive fabric from overseas textile manufacturers through large cardboard bolts or plastic center tubes or piles or bags. The fabric usually arrives at the metal shipping containers and is lowered with a fork. Clothing factories usually have a warehouse or a designated storage area between arrival and production.
There are thousands of fabric designs and fabric quality. The choice of fabric is made according to the required fabric quality, such as the color of the fabric, the fiber content, the texture of the soil, the feel of the hand, the physical and chemical properties. If the required fabric is already available in the market, the factory buys those fabrics in stock. In this factory you have to check the various places to get the necessary fabrics. In addition, they work with the fabric supplier to improve the quality of the fabric you want.
“Relaxing” refers to the process that allows the material to relax and contract prior to being manufactured. This step is necessary because the material is continually under tension throughout the various stages of the textile manufacturing process, including weaving, dyeing, and other finishing processes. The relaxing process allows fabrics to shrink so that further shrinkage during customer use is minimize.
Costume manufacturers make the process of relaxing by hand or by machine. Hand-woven fabric usually involves loading the fabric bolts into the spinner and then feeding it by hand with a machine tool that eliminates fabric tension as it is pulled. Relaxing machine fabric performs the same process in an automated way.
Many clothing manufacturers will also incorporate quality assurance in this process to ensure that the quality of the fabric meets the customer standards. This step is done by manually looking at each fabric bolt using a lighted spot to identify production defects such as color inconsistencies or flaws in the item. Fabrics that fail to meet customer standards are returned to the textile manufacturer.
The next step is to loosen the fabric. In this fabrication guide, relaxing fabrics can be a small part but have a great impact. The main purpose is to rest and give contractors fabrics to be ready for production. At most stages in the manufacturing process, fabrics deal with tensions that can cause shrinkage. Therefore, the rest of the fabric allows you to first reduce the shrinkage when customer use.
Simply put, workers load the fabric bolts into the spinner and supply them with machines to relieve tension between the object. This process can also be done with automated machines with the same process.
During the fabric relaxation process, manufacturers can also do a quality check on the labels. Workers place faces behind the fabric to detect any textile defects, for example, color inconsistencies. If workers are able to detect errors, the factory will return them to the manufacturer.
Distribution, Form Planning, and Cutting
After the fabric is loosened, it is transferred to the distribution and cutting area of the garment factory. The fabric is first cut into the same root and then spread by hand or using a computer-controlled system to prepare the cutting process.
Fabric is spread to:
Allow operators to identify fabric defects;
Control the loosening and loosening of the fabric during cutting; and
Make sure that each ply is aligned more accurately than the others.
The number of plies in each distribution depends on the type of fabric, the distribution method, the cutting equipment, and the order size of the garment.
Types of fabric spreading system:
When the fabric spreads mechanically on the cutting table and the so-called automatic fabric spreads.
When the cloth is still distributed by a person at the cutting table and the hand cloth is said to spread. In my factory they work by hand.
The placement process requires certain steps and rules:
First, workers place large pieces and arrange small pieces. Small pieces can fit inside to preserve the fabric used in the process. This action will help save a lot of money because the work sets and cuts hundreds of layers. To be more precise, there are many rules to ensure that the fabric is fully operational and cost-effective.
The length of the dress needs to match the edges of the fabric.
The pattern is set with the correct grain.
The parts are placed on the edge of the pen.
The laying process is done on the wrong side of the fabric.
Fabric design needs to be applied to the specific area of the garment when placing paper patterns. After all, no one wants a dress with a high city pattern.
Checks and strips are guaranteed to match the layers
This process can be done manually or with a computerized marking system. First, the marker takes the full-size patterns and places them on the mark sheet. Properly covered, it will withstand a great deal of adverse conditions.
Marking paper is a printed paper with markers showing the shape of each part and making sure that each piece follows certain lines of grain. Workers insert pins or staples into the fabric so that the marker stays in place. However, some manufacturers use adhesives and heat them to adhere to the upper layer of the fabric.
Markers play an important role in preparing the cutting process. As you enter the cutting room, the dispenser arranges the fabric in about a hundred layers and markers. This process is monitored by the supervisor to ensure proper operation.
Cutting is the most important action that takes place in the cutting room. After finishing with distribution, placement, marking, employees proceed with the important cutting step. As the saying goes, “Once you cut it, there is no turning back”, and that expression describes the only complete rule of the cutting room.
It is assumed that if there are any problems with the cut, the sewing process will be affected as well as the end result. There is nothing that can be done to improve the situation. A sharp knife with a sharp knife is used to complete the cutting process.
Types of cutting process
- Manual cutting
- Heat cutting
- Laser cutting
It is a man-made procedure called a hand-cutting procedure. On my clothes they cut fabric by hand process. The main cut provides education to the employee and the employee follow the instructions.
Basically, a heat exchanger is used in this process and the machine has a copper coil. And the electric current passing through the coil was then heated. Then he cut the fabric. This machine is not suitable for fabric type fabric, it is used for non-woven fabric.
A small lamp is used for cutting. It is a very expensive method of cutting but cutting is very effective.
Embroidering and Screen Printing:
The print and screen printing process requires specific requests from customers. For example, sports products can offer the convenience of printing certain images on T-shirts and embroidering their logos or other shirt embellishments.
Specifically, the production line includes 10 to 20 embroidered channels that automatically use the same embroidery patterns on multiple garments at once. On the other hand, the screen printing process works with an image based on paint on clothes. These presses use printing presses and dryers.
All pieces of clothing are collected in size, color, and quantity, and then ready for the next sewing or sewing step. Basically, this process is done by sewing machine workers. They are given bundles of cut pieces and sew the same piece of clothing, then transfer that piece to the next worker to sew the next piece.
There are workers who sew only the shirt collar on the body of the shirt, and then pass it on to the next workers to sew only the sleeves. This rule sets out the time to finish sewing the perfect dress.
In industry they follow a process to maintain sewing.
Collect fabric from cutting section
Input the fabric into the line
Set the machine settings
Post production meeting
Production line up set
Check goods quality by Sewing Quality Inspector
Fault return to the worker
Checking and Laundry:
There will be checks and quality assurance at the end of the sewing line. Workers are required to ensure proper collection of clothing without production defects.
The garment manufacturer has some degree of testing to ensure the quality of the garment. This procedure was performed to reduce the percentage of clothing rejected by customers. During the testing step, staff can detect any stains, cosmetic defects or stains on clothing as a result of the cutting and sewing process. Often spots or spots appear as a result of marking in a valuable process. Therefore, all the clothes are taken to the laundry right inside the factory.
Fussing and Pressing:
These are the two most important steps in determining the finished look of a garment. While the friction lays the foundation, the pressure makes a final mark on the garment. Hand tools with a vacuum pressure table, scissors machine, carousel machines, and steam dolly are machines used to complete the mixing and pressure.
Packing and shipping:
This is the final step in the production of garments, staff wrapping, marking, size, and clothing based on customer needs. All the clothes are packed in protective plastic, and then packed in cardboard boxes to be ready for shipment to the customer center.
Full garments are inspected to ensure the quality of the finished products. This process is followed by internal quality research and ensuring that no incomplete clothing is included in the boxes.
Finished and ready product:
Finally the clothes are ready to be shipped and ready for the final buyers.