Several factors affect the success of top list garment manufacturing companies in Bolivia. These factors include politics, the agrarian reform law, and gender complementarity.
1 Gender complementarity is a hallmark of Bolivian and Andean society
Among the most striking features of Bolivian and Andean society is gender complementarity. This is particularly true in rural areas. The high status of women in many rural communities is bolstered by matrilineal inheritance and matrilineal access to resources.
However, the gender divide is also present in urban areas. In these communities, linguistic terms for address emphasize social distance. For example, peasants address women as “madam” (senora) or “gente del decente” (“gente del deferente”). Men are referred to as “caballero” or “caballero-de-la-independencia” (gente del indio).
Although Bolivia has a constitutional republic, it is characterized by political instability. Most Bolivians are Catholic. The agrarian reform law passed in 1996 was intended to reduce the growing disparity in access to land. It was also intended to protect the environment.
The Catholic Church changed its position on the morality of procreation. The majority of heterosexual Catholic couples now use birth control. The Catholic Church allows for same-sex marriage, but does not see openness to procreation as a moral aspect of sexuality.
Bolivians have a strong sense of national identity. Historically, this has been shaped by wars in the Pacific and Chaco. It was a crucial factor in the 1952 populist revolution. The Spanish conquest of Andean societies led to an institutionalized system of unequal access to resources.
The 1992 census confirmed that 80 percent of the population lived in the highlands. In addition, the population in La Paz-El Alto grew 16 percent over the 1976 census.
2 Modern skyscrapers are found primarily in La Paz and Cochabamba
Located in South America, Bolivia is a landlocked country that borders Argentina to the north, Paraguay to the south, and Brazil to the west. It extends over 1,098,580 square kilometers. The population was estimated by the United Nations to be 8,922,000 in 2005.
In the mid-1990s, laws were passed to reorganize the government and increase political participation. This included the right of all Bolivians over the age of 21 to vote. In addition, a bill of rights was enacted, guaranteeing the right to freedom of expression and the right to petition the government.
The Roman Catholic Church is the official religion of the country. A number of Protestant groups also practice in the country, including the Mormons, who have the largest number of adherents in Bolivia.
Bolivia is a constitutional republic. Its bicameral legislature is located in La Paz, while its executive branch is in Sucre. The constitution provides for a proportional representation system. This has encouraged the formation of various political parties.
Bolivia has nine departments. The president has always had the power to appoint department governors. However, in 2005, the Bolivians voted for provincial prefects directly, without having to go through the Chamber of Deputies. In the ensuing election, the results were annulled by a new military government.
The country’s economy was boosted by the silver boom of the late 19th century. Mining was a large industry in the country. When the prices of silver fell, tin mining took over.
3 Symbolism is a hallmark of Bolivian and Andean society
Symbolism is a central element of Bolivian and Andean society. Many communities associate holy places with mountain deities or Christian saints. This can lead to the creation of imagined communities and pride.
In the domestic arena, a typical Andean marriage pattern involves a religious wedding followed by a civil wedding. The woman may wear a heavy skirt and a mantle, while the man wears a wool cap and rubber sandals.
Likewise, in ritual life, a shaman exposes power objects wrapped in a special cloth. The ukhu practice also emphasizes the revelation of hidden objects.
A key part of Andean social organization and ritual is the coca leaf. Coca chewing has become an important marker of ethnic identity. The international drug trade has made Bolivia the third largest producer and exporter of coca leaf in the world.
Another significant mark of class is the participation in Andean religious rites. Most ritual specialists are male. In fact, the k’harisiri is considered the soul of a priest.
The Andean worldview is complex. It incorporates a variety of practices, beliefs, and philosophies. These complex systems help to create a sense of national identity.
Gender complementarity is common in Andean society, particularly in rural areas. The high status of women is largely due to matrilineal inheritance. These identities are bolstered by gender complementarity in access to resources and in the role of women in marketing crops.
Ayni is a Quechua concept of duality. It is important to the region because of environmental challenges. It represents the relationship between past and present, the present and future, and the two sexes.
4 Agrarian reform law
During his first term, President Evo Morales made a bold agrarian reform policy to provide additional hectares for the rural poor. He promised 20 million hectares to 28% of Bolivia’s population, and presented land titles to sixty indigenous groups.
These promises, however, were not met. Frustration from unmet expectations led to an increase in land disputes in rural areas. The government said it would not permit land invasions. But it also said it was ready to reclaim land that was used for speculative purposes.
Agrarian reform legislation passed in 1996 expanded the powers of the state to redistribute land. It also set up new procedures to resolve land conflicts. In addition, collective land titles were granted to the indigenous communities.
As a result of the law, two-thirds of the redistributed lands were taken from land owners who had illegal titles. The remaining land was distributed among peasant families. The government also assured landowners that productively used land would not be affected.
In addition, the revolutionary government would promote the development of freezing plants, and agro-industrial cooperatives. It would also plant large nurseries and reforestation zones. The second revolutionary law would give non-mortgageable ownership of land to subtenant farmers. The third revolutionary law would grant 30% of profits to workers in large enterprises.
Agrarian reform law in Bolivia is known as INRA. The law states that the state has the right to expropriate lands to protect biodiversity and ensure collection of land taxes. It also establishes the National Agrarian Reform Service (INRA).
While the agrarian reform law was a success in many ways, it was also a disappointment. Despite the law’s provisions, subsequent governments manipulated the law to meet their own political agendas. Moreover, the law’s grey areas have prevented complete redistribution of lands.
During the early 1970s, Bolivia pursued state-led economic policies. Most Bolivians were engaged in agriculture. As a result, the country’s economy was sluggish. A series of external shocks compelled the country to adopt austere measures. Moreover, the high debt/GDP ratio contributed to the country’s sluggish growth.
The government launched a macroeconomic stabilization program to control prices and maintain the growth rate. It also implemented a structural reform program to reduce poverty. The most important structural changes were capitalization of public sector enterprises and privatization.
In addition to these policy reforms, the IMF’s structural adjustment program was introduced in Bolivia. The program helped to improve the country’s economy by drastically boosting foreign direct investment. It also linked small and medium-sized enterprises to the value-added manufactured goods market.
In December 2005, Bolivia’s presidential election was won by Evo Morales, an indigenous leader. He led the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) party. However, his plans to reform the constitution have been stymied by a strong opposition movement. In June 2008, the coca growers union announced that it would not sign aid agreements with USAID. The protests that followed killed at least three people and injured dozens.
The agrarian reform law passed in 1996 delimited the ethnic polities of Bolivia. This was intended to improve access to land and to preserve biodiversity. It also ensured collection of land taxes and expropriated land used for speculative purposes. The government began to reclaim land for public use and to reclaim lands that were no longer being utilized for agricultural purposes.
Henry Pham (Pham Quang Anh), CEO of DONY Garment
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